Standard bibliographic format

Below are standard formats and examples for basic bibliographic information recommended by the Modern Language Association MLA. For more information on the MLA format, see http: Basics Your list of works cited should begin at the end of the paper on a new page with the centered title, Works Cited.

Standard bibliographic format

Get personalized writing suggestions from EasyBib Plus!

History[ edit ] A format for the exchange of bibliographic Information, it was developed in the s under the direction of Henriette Avram of the Library of Congress to encode the information printed on library cards.

The version of the standard was titled Documentation—Format for bibliographic information interchange on magnetic tape.

The ISO standard supersedes Z As of December the current standard is ISO Record label—the first 24 characters of the record. This is the only portion of the record that is fixed in length. The record label includes the record length and the base address of the data contained in the record.

It also has data elements that indicate how many characters are used for indicators and subfield identifiers. See Variable fields, below Directory [3] —the directory provides the entry positions to the fields in the record, along with the field tags.

A directory entry has four parts and cannot exceed twelve characters in length: Field tag 3 characters Length of the field 4 characters Starting character position of the field 5 characters Optional Implementation-defined part Datafields Variable fields —a string containing all field and subfield data in the record Record separator—a single character IS3 of ISO Note that although tags are often displayed as labels on bibliographic fields and each bibliographic field has an associated tag, the tags are stored in the directory not in the bibliographic field.

Fields[ edit ] There are three kinds of fields in the ISO record: Record identifier field—identifying the record and assigned by the organization that creates the record. The record identifier field has tag Reserved fields—Reserved fields supply data which may be required for the processing of the record.

International Standard Serial Numbers (ISSN)

Reserved fields always have a tag in the range — and 00A—00Z. They can also have these optional sub-parts: Indicator 0—9 characters, as coded in the Leader —Indicators generally provide further information about the contents of the field, the relationship between the field and other fields in the record, or about action required in certain data manipulation processes including display labels.

Standard bibliographic format

Identifier 0—9 characters —This identifies data within the bibliographic field. Where used, identifiers are composed of a delimiter 1 char, IS1 of ISO and an identifying code 1—9 chars, as defined in the leaderplus a variable length string containing the data.Bibliographic Formats and Standards is being revised.


For details, see the Revision in progress section of the Abstract and Revision History.. For information on RDA in MARC, see: OCLC’s About RDA page The Library of Congress RDA in MARC page.

Below are the standard bibliography format for the APA, MLA, and Chicago format, and a list of bibliography examples for basic bibliographic information and commonly used research sources: MLA format.

Bibliographic Citations

Bentley, Eric R. Overview. The EPUB® specification is a distribution and interchange format standard for digital publications and documents. EPUB defines a means of representing, packaging and encoding structured and semantically enhanced Web content — including HTML5, CSS, SVG, images, and other resources — for distribution in a single-file format.

This document contains our standard citation formats for articles and books (for the formatting of a variety of other types of resources, such as an edited volume, see the Extensive List of Bibliographic References).

In each case, we specify the way to format it both for a footnote/endnote and for an entry in the Bibliography.

Write with confidence with...

This online publication provides access to both the full and concise versions of the MARC 21 Format for Bibliographic "full" bibliographic format contains detailed descriptions of every data element, along with examples, . The Object Management Group® (OMG®) is an international, open membership, not-for-profit technology standards consortium.

Founded in , OMG standards are driven by vendors, end-users, academic institutions and government agencies.

Writing a Bibliography: APA Format