France country report

French territorial evolution from to The French nobility played a prominent role in most Crusades in order to restore Christian access to the Holy Land. French knights made up the bulk of the steady flow of reinforcements throughout the two-hundred-year span of the Crusades, in such a fashion that the Arabs uniformly referred to the crusaders as Franj caring little whether they really came from France. The latter, in particular, held numerous properties throughout France and by the 13th century were the principal bankers for the French crown, until Philip IV annihilated the order in

France country report

The Treaty of Aranjuez confirms the Spanish retrocession to France. Napoleon Bonaparte sells Louisiana to the United Statesa few weeks after sending a prefect to New Orleans to assume control. Three weeks later, in December, France officially cedes it to the United States.

Political and administrative organization[ edit ] It was not easy for an absolute monarchy to administer Louisiana, a territory several times larger than European France. Louis XIV and his successors tried to impose their absolutist ambitions on the colony, often without giving the colonial administration enough financial means to do its work.

Henry IV, the first Bourbon king, was personally interested in foreign affairs. In the 17th century, the ministers Richelieu and later Colbert advanced colonial politics.

Louis XIV and his ministers were worried about the size of the kingdom, over France country report they constantly competed with other European nations. European rivalry and a game of political alliances greatly marked the history of Louisiana, in direct and indirect ways.

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Within those shifting conditions, the French desire to limit British influence France country report the New World was a constant in royal politics. Louis XIV took care to limit the appearance of intermediary bodies and countervailing powers in North America.

He did not want an assembly of notables or parliament. In the s, the colony was royal property. Between andthe French possession came under the control of Antoine Crozata rich businessman, then under that of the Mississippi Company created by John Lawwhich recruited immigrants to settle the colony.

InLouisiana reverted to royal rule. In contrast to Metropolitan Francethe government applied a single unified law of the land: But, the centralised government had difficulty maintaining communications over the long distance and sailing time that separated France from Louisiana.

Toward the end of the 17th century and the beginning of the 18th, the colonists on the Gulf of Mexico were left almost completely to fend for themselves; they counted far more on the assistance of the Native Americans than on France.

The distance had its advantages: He dissolved the trading companies and took care to increase the production of the country and the colonies. Being a mercantilisthe believed it was necessary to sell as much as possible and to reduce reliance on imports.

He imposed a French monopoly on trade. Colbert wanted to reduce the expenditure of the monarchy. It was, however, necessary to invest much money and to mobilize important human resources retain the American colony.

Much work was done on the economic infrastructure factories, ports in metropolitan France, but the investment was not enough in Louisiana. No plan to facilitate the movement of goods or men was ever carried out. The French budget was exhausted because of the wars in Europe, but the colonists in Louisiana did not have to pay royal taxes and were free of the hated gabelle.

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New France was initially ruled by a viceroy inthe Duke of Ventadour. The colony was then given a government like the Bourbons ' other possessions.

Its capital was Quebec city until A governor generalassisted by a single intendantwas charged with ruling this vast region. In theory, Louisiana was subordinate to Canada, and so it was explored and settled chiefly by French-Canadians rather than colonists from France. Given the enormous distance between New Orleans and Quebec, communications outside cities and forts were limited.

French settlements were widely dispersed, which afforded them de facto autonomy.France was clearly moving down the value chain.

The goods produced and exported became less complex, implying a rising number of competitors.

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Low innovation and low productivity gains explained why competitiveness and labour costs became such an issue. As a result, the unemployment rate should not decrease dramatically during the next quarters.

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France current events, news, media reports in France.

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France country report
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